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Slovak should not be confused with Slovene, or Slovenian (), the main language of Slovenia.Slovak uses the Latin script with small modifications that include the four diacritics (ˇ, ´, ¨, ˆ) placed above certain letters (a-á,ä; c-č; d-ď; dz-dž; e-é; i-í; l-ľ,ĺ; n-ň; o-ó,ô; r-ŕ; s-š; t-ť; u-ú; y-ý; z-ž)The primary principle of Slovak spelling is the phonemic principle.Slavic language varieties tend to be closely related, and have had a large degree of mutual influence, due to the complicated ethnopolitical history of their historic ranges.This is reflected in the many features Slovak shares with neighboring language varieties.
Some examples are as follows: Ten veľký muž tam dnes otvára obchod. (ten = that; veľký = big; muž = man; tam = there; dnes = today; otvára = opens; obchod = store) – The word order does not emphasize any specific detail, just general information. Variation in word order is generally possible, but word order is not completely free. There are three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter. To lesser degrees, moreover, Slovak has been influenced by German, Latin, Hungarian, and recently English.Standard Slovak shares high degrees of mutual intelligibility with many Slavic varieties.Despite this closeness to other Slavic varieties, significant variation exists among Slovak dialects.The secondary principle is the morphological principle: forms derived from the same stem are written in the same way even if they are pronounced differently.